Want a Quick Q&A for Exosomes? Read This
In recent years, biomimetic nanomedicine combined with the unique functions of natural biomaterials and the versatility of artificial nanomaterials has attracted widespread attention for drug delivery. In 2019, the study Tumor exosome-based nanoparticles are efficient drug carriers for chemotherapy published in Nature Communications have showed that exosomes-biomimetic nanoparticles have the potential to improve anti-cancer efficacy as drug carriers. Moreover, because such nanoparticles can effectively kill tumor stem cells, it is expected to solve major problems such as tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance.
Exosomes are cell vesicles that contain complex RNA and proteins. Their size is in the nanometer range (30-150 nanometers in diameter), and they can be secreted by a variety of cells under normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes are mainly derived from multivesicular bodies formed by intracellular lysosomal microparticles, which are released into the extracellular matrix after fusion of the outer membrane of multivesicles with the cell membrane.
In 2013, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to three scientists who discovered the regulation mechanism of cell vesicle transport. Further research found exosomes are involved in important biological processes such as immune response, apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, and coagulation. In addition, they are also involved in cell-to-cell communication. Therefore, many studies have begun to focus on the use of exosomes to deliver drugs.
What Exactly Are Exosomes?
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles secreted by mammalian cells, which carry nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. They’re first described as such 30 years ago, and due to their stability in the circulation, biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and low toxicity, they have recently been used as attractive drug nanocarriers. In addition, exosomes exhibit effective cell uptake and target-homing ability, which depends on the proteins of their membranes. They are mediators of near and long-distance intercellular communication in health and disease and affect various aspects of cell biology.
Can Exosomes Spread Cancer?
A study published on December 31 in Nature Cell Biology links the spread of breast cancer from resistant tumors in mice to extracellular vesicles these cancer cells secrete and shows an uptick in their potential to cause metastasis after treatment with some chemotherapeutic drugs. In the experiment, researchers saw that the exosomes made their way to the endothelial cells of the lungs, where breast cancer often spreads.
Are Exosomes FDA Approved?
As a general matter, exosomes used to treat diseases and conditions in humans are regulated as drugs and biological products under the Public Health Service Act and the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and are subject to premarket review and approval requirements. Through inquiries on previous FDA approved drugs, there are currently no FDA-approved exosome products.
Nanomedicine has unique properties such as permeability and retention, modifiability, intelligent responsiveness, and co-delivery of multiple drugs. It plays an important role in precise and coordinated treatment of tumors, enhancing efficacy and reducing toxic side effects. CD Bioparticles is specialized in the development of drug delivery systems and customizing exosomes for drug delivery utilizing our core technologies. With our high-quality products and services, the efficacy of your drug delivery can be tremendously improved.
About the Author
CD Bioparticles is a leading manufacturer and supplier of various drug delivery products, including exosomes for R&D and commercialization in a variety of application areas. CD Bioparticles offers a complete set of service for exosome isolation, characterization and engineering to facilitate exosome applications in biomedicines.